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Mutaxassislar rozi: Chikago - Amerikadagi eng yaxshi Meksika restorani

Mutaxassislar rozi: Chikago - Amerikadagi eng yaxshi Meksika restorani


Yaqinda "meksikalik" taomlar sho'rvada guruch va qovurilgan loviya bo'lagi, erigan pishloq bilan qoplangan enchiladalar, yonida bir nechta qobiqli tako bo'lishi mumkin edi. Yaxshiyamki, biz uzoq yo'lni bosib o'tdik va hozirda Meksikaning deyarli har bir mintaqasi oshxonasi Amerika oshxona peyzajida yaxshi namoyish etilgan. Bugungi kunda ko'pchilik odamlar burrito, chimichangas, quesadillas va shunga o'xshashlarning standart menyusi aslida meksikaliklarga qaraganda ko'proq Tex-Mex ekanligini va chegaradan janubga borganingizda, butun dunyo mazali (va pishloqsiz) bo'lishini tushunishadi. ) o'rganish imkoniyatlari. Bundan tashqari, haqiqiylik baholangan bo'lsa-da, mamlakatning eng taniqli oshpazlari, masalan, sobiq pirojnoe Aleks Stupak va Oklaxoma shtatida tug'ilgan Rik Bayless, o'z e'tiborini va ijodini meksikaliklarga qaratgan, bu esa oshxona oshxonasiga aylangan.

Bizning reytingimizni yig'ish uchun Amerikadagi 50 ta eng yaxshi Meksika taomlari restorani, biz Amerikaning etakchi oshpazlik idoralari, yozuvchilar va tanqidchilarga bizning reytingimizni yig'ish uchun yuborgan so'rov natijalarini tahlil qildik. Amerikadagi eng yaxshi 50 ta qulay restoranlar va Amerikadagi 101 ta eng yaxshi restoranlar. Biz ularni bosma nashrlarda ham, Internetda ham eng yaxshi ro'yxatlar bilan to'ldirdik va butun mamlakat bo'ylab shaxsiy sevimlilarimiz bilan to'ldirdik. Biz, shuningdek, haqiqiy Meksika tariflariga ixtisoslashgan restoranlarni o'z ichiga olganmiz; menyudagi ba'zi Tex-Meksika klassikalari, agar chindan ham yaxshi bajarilgan bo'lsa, qabul qilinadi, asosiy e'tibor haqiqiy Meksika oshxonasiga qaratilishi kerak edi. Biz aniqladikki, Xose Andresning Vashingtondagi yuqori darajali restoranidan, Kaliforniya shtatining Mountain View shahridagi oddiy taqueriyaga qadar, siz uchrashadigan eng yaxshi karnitalarga xizmat qilasiz, Amerikada ajoyib Meksika restoranlari yo'q. Ma'lum bo'lishicha, 6 kishi Chikagoda istiqomat qiladi, shu jumladan, mamlakatning eng zo'rlari.

70-yillarning oxirida PBS-ning 26 qismli "Meksikani pishirish" serialini o'tkazganidan beri, Oklaxomada tug'ilgan oshpaz Rik Bayless Amerikada Meksika taomlari chempioni bo'lgan. U hatto Meksika hukumatining roziligiga sazovor bo'ldi - 2012 yilda u "Aztek burguti" ordeni bilan taqdirlandi, bu chet elliklarga beriladigan eng yuqori mukofot. Topolobampo-da, o'zining mashhur va g'ayrioddiy Frontera Grilining bir oz xayolparast va shuhratparast amakivachchasi, Bayless Meksikaning eng yaxshi restoranlari tashqarisida topilmaydigan turlicha Meksika taomlariga xizmat qiladi, agar u erda bo'lsa ham. "Qizil koviche" dagi qizil snapper (qip-qizil gibiskus bilan quritilgan), qurbaqalarning oyog'i kaskalli chili, ancho-tamarind sosli qo'zichoq va shokoladli va koptokli kajeta kreplari-bu rang-barang, yaxshi ishlangan oshxonada. .

Endi Topolobampoda mahalliy va milliy raqobat bor edi. The Windy City -dagi beshta meksikalik restoran bizning to'plamimizga joylashtirildi, ya'ni Chikago mamlakatning 50 ta eng yaxshi Meksika restoranlarining 12% da mezbonlik qiladi; ular: Salpikon (42), La Pasadita (37), Birrieriya Saragoza (25), Maksvell ko'chasi bozori (22) va Katta yulduz (9). Shunday qilib, Bayless eng yuqori pog'onani egallab, Chikagodagi eng yaxshi Meksika restoranining faxrli egasi va Amerikadagi eng zo'r.


CHIKAGO OZIQ -OVQAT TARIXI YO'LIDAN YALOVLI.

Chikago har doim oziq -ovqat shahri bo'lgan. Oxir -oqibat, oddiy yovvoyi piyoz bo'lsa ham, qancha shaharga oziq -ovqat nomi berilgan? Potovatomilar uni Chikagu deb atashgan. Chikagoning mavjudligi va uning boyligi oziq -ovqatga asoslangan. Shahar tashkil etilganidan boshlab O'rta G'arbiy qishloq xo'jaligi mahsulotlarini yig'ish va jo'natish markazi bo'lgan. Va Chikago Amerikaning oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini qayta ishlashning yangi sanoatining yuragiga aylandi.

Sanoat bilan o'z oshxonalarini olib kelgan muhojirlar kelib, Chikagoni etnik oziq -ovqat shaharchasiga aylantirdilar. Sanoatdan kelgan pullar bilan mashhur restoranlarda san'at va ovqatlanish san'ati yaxshilandi.

Chikago taomlari haqidagi hikoya bu yil 150 yilligini nishonlaydigan ushbu nashrdan ancha eski. Ammo bunday yubiley oziq -ovqat tarixining mazmunli lahzalarini o'tlatish imkoniyatini beradi.

1796. Frantsuz tilida so'zlashuvchi Jan Baptist Point du Sable Chikago daryosi yaqinida Dörborn va Vakerga aylanadigan kabinani quradi (uni mehr bilan Sarimsoq Krik deb atashadi).

1803. Britsher Jon Kinzi savdo postini boshqaradi va Ft quradi. Aziz tug'ilgan. Uning oilasi Potowatomis bilan turmush qurgan va, ehtimol, kiyik go'shti, sukotash va tuzli cho'chqa go'shti eyishgan.

1812. Kinzilarning janubiy filiali keladi. Ular Kentukki uslubidagi viskini sotish uchun jimjitlik o'rnatdilar.

1820 -yillar. Kinzilarning qarindoshlari bo'lgan Klyuburn va Xoll oilalari "Rolling Meadows" da chorvachilik hovlisini qurdilar. "Ular mol, go'shtni ko'chirishadi va Clybourn prospektiga aylanadigan joyni yashirishadi.

1827. Jon Kinzi va Archibald Kolduell Wolf Pointda birinchi haqiqiy tavernani quradilar. Xizmat qiladigan ichimliklarning aksariyati qattiq va uy qurilishi.

1830. Jorj V. Dole, keyinchalik "Qoidalar, yuk tashish va lift ishi" deb nomlangan, Chicago shahrining Dearborn va Suv ko'chalarida birinchi oziq -ovqat do'konini ochadi. Bu hudud shaharning ulgurji bozoriga aylanadi.

Dole o'z do'konida mol go'shtini so'yish va qadoqlashni boshlaydi. U kuniga 150 boshni qayta ishlaydi va Chikagodagi go'shtni qadoqlash sanoati tug'iladi.

1831. Yangi Angliyaliklar Chikagoga joylashib, ular bilan istiridye ta'mini olib kelishadi. Sharqiy qirg'oqdan kelgan istiridyelar deyarli bir asr davomida Chikagoda asosiy mahsulotga aylanadi. 1857 yilga kelib, shaharda ettita "Oyster omborlari" va to'rtta "Oyster salonlari" mavjud.

1833. Mark Beaubien ko'p qavatli Sauganash tavernasini boshqaradi. Faqat 16 x 44 metrli tavernada navbatchilik bilan ovqatlanar va viski suvlari sotar edi. Quvnoq va skripkada o'ynaydigan Beaubien aytganidek: & quot; Men kechki ovqat uchun 50 kishini yeyman. & Quot

1835. Kinzi ko'chasidagi "Lake House" mehmonxonasi - birinchi ajoyib ovqatlanish joyi. Bu menyu kartalari, ro'molcha, tish pichoqlardan foydalanadigan va Chikagodagi ko'pchilik sevadigan istiridye xizmat qiladigan birinchi ovqat xonasi.

1836. Irlandiya taomlari Chikagoga birinchi bo'lib irlandlarning katta oqimi bilan keladi, asosan Bridgeport atrofida. Qaynatilgan kartoshka va karam asosiy hisoblanadi, lekin ularning an'anaviy tuzlangan cho'chqa go'shti molga boy Amerikada jo'xori go'shtiga aylanadi.

1837. 28 -chi ko'chadagi V.F.Myrikning omborxonasi - Union Stock Yardsning ajdodi. Uning pansionati/saloni chorva mollarini haydovchilarga ovqat, ichimlik va ko'ngilochar tadbirlarni o'tkazadi. Hamma tez o'sib borayotgan shaharda gullab -yashnaydi, ko'pincha hurmatli fuqarolarni xafa qiladi. Shahardagi birinchi ro'yxatga olishda 398 ta turar joy, oziq -ovqat va oziq -ovqat do'konlari va 29 ta (yashil) oziq -ovqat mahsulotlari ko'rsatilgan. Tavernalar cherkovlardan ko'p, lekin advokatlar emas.

1838. Buyuk G'arbiy paroxod Chikagodan tasodifiy yuk sifatida 75 buta bug'doy olib yuradi. Bir avlod ichida Chikago dunyodagi eng katta don omboriga aylanadi.

1839. Chikagoda etti mehmonxona bor, lekin mustaqil restoranlar yo'q. Ovqatlanish - mehmonxonadagi ovqat xonalari yoki unchalik taniqli bo'lmagan tavernalar.

1847. Cyrus McCormick 1847 yilda Chikagoga ko'chib, mexanik o'roq mashinasini ishlab chiqaradi. U birinchi yili 450 dona sotadi, har bir mashinaga 100 dollardan oshadi. Makkormik katta boylikka ega bo'ladi, uning bir qismi 1914 yildan boshlab Chikago Tribunasini boshqaradigan nabirasi Robert R. Makkormikka o'tadi.

Illinoys va Michigan kanali ochiladi. O'rta g'arbiy dehqonlar Chikago bozorini kashf etadilar va Sharqqa makkajo'xori eksporti sakkiz barobar oshadi. Kapitan Robert C. Bristol bug 'bilan ishlaydigan birinchi yirik donli liftni quradi. O'n yil ichida liftning quvvati 4 million tupdan oshadi. Chikago dunyoga oziq -ovqat sotuvchisi bo'lish yo'lida.

Chikago 683,600 funt yuk tashuvchi yirik cho'chqa qassobiga aylanadi. Shahar 1849 yilda bu ko'rsatkichni to'rt baravar ko'paytirdi, lekin Tsincinnati "Porkopolis" unvonini saqlab qoldi. "Cho'chqa go'shti unvonini talab qila olmagan Chikagoliklar o'z shaharlarini" Dunyoning buyuk sigir shahri "deb e'lon qilishdi.

Chikago savdo kengashi tashkil etilgan. 1856 yilga kelib u butun dunyoda qo'llaniladigan bug'doy va boshqa donlarning yagona toifalari va navlarini belgilaydi.

1850 -yillar. Pivo va brats Chikagoga keladi. Ko'p sonli nemis muhojirlari shaharga kolbasa, non, pivo, nozik qandolat mahsulotlari va qandolatchilik mahoratini olib kelishadi. Piter Rinderer 1865 yilda, ehtimol, birinchi pivo bog'i - Ogden Groveni ochadi.

1853. Sankt-Nikolaydan eng qadimgi mehmonxona menyusi 1853 yilga to'g'ri keladi-Nyu-York-Chikago temir yo'l aloqasi tugagandan so'ng.

1854. 1854 yilga kelib Chikago - yangi temir yo'l arteriyalari ulanadigan yurak. Taxminan 83 million pud g'alla temir va kanal orqali chiqariladi va chiqariladi. Fuqarolar urushi paytida, uyda va chet elda oziq -ovqatga bo'lgan talab shaharni oziq -ovqat etkazib beruvchi va etkazib berish markaziga aylantiradi. Temir yo'llarning uchdan bir qismi Chikagoga olib keladi.

Davr baqaloqlari reklama qiladi: & quot; Shaharning istalgan joyiga tekin etkazib beriladi. & Quot; Bolalar etkazib berish davri tong otadi. Va bitta Uilyam Vinter, oshpaz, 1853-54 yillardagi Chikago shahar katalogida paydo bo'ladi. U shunday nomlangan birinchi va yagona odam. Oshpazlar hali oshpaz emas.

1855. Har doim etnik shahar bo'lgan Chikago aholisining soni 25 677 amerikalik va 35 879 chet el fuqarosi. Nemislar va irlandlar bularning ko'pini tashkil qiladi. 1856 yilda Chikagoda 10 ta pivo ishlab chiqaruvchi va 37 ta qandolatchilar bor. Pine ko'chasi va Tsitseron xiyobonining burchagida joylashgan "Lill and Diversy" "Brown, Amber va Pale Ales" va "Ta'riflangan solod sirka" ni tayyorladi.

1858. Restoranlarning birinchi eksklyuziv ro'yxatlari Chikago shahar katalogida paydo bo'ladi, ulardan 13 tasi 12 va "Ovqatlanish uylari".

Oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini qayta ishlashda muzlatish Chikagodagi go'sht yig'uvchilar yozda cho'chqa go'shtini saqlash uchun saqlangan qishki muzdan foydalanganda o'z kuchini yo'qotadi. Michigan ko'li va ko'llarda katta muz bloklarini kesish va saqlash katta biznesga aylanadi.

1859. 1859 yilda 46 ta qandolatchilar, 9 ta sirka ishlab chiqaruvchi, 4 ta "Turşu omborlari" va barchasi Sherman ko'chasidagi 195 B.Vaydel va Makkaroni ishlab chiqaradigan B. Hyde ko'radi.

Makaron ko'pincha Chikago menyularida paydo bo'ladi, lekin makaron XX asrni kutmoqda.

1860. Devid Berg Saut Uells ko'chasida o'z nomi bilan go'sht bozorini ochdi. Asr oxiriga kelib u Chikagodagi eng mashhur hot -dog ishlab chiqaruvchilardan biri bo'ladi.

1860 yilda 27 ta restoran bor. Restoranlarga Solomon Tompson va mashhur Jon Rayt kiradi. Rayt, shuningdek, qandolatchi, keyingi 30 yil davomida Chikagoga tashrif buyuradigan barcha mashhur odamlarga xizmat qiladi.

1865. Chikago Union Stock Yards tashkil etilishi bilan dunyo uchun qassobxonaga aylanadi.

Chikago savdo kengashi fyuchers savdosining rasmiy qoidalarini o'rnatadi. Bu Amerika oziq -ovqat sanoatining muhim qismiga aylanadi.

Chikagoda nashr etilgan birinchi oshxona kitobi R.R.Landon tomonidan "Uy xazinalari" deb nomlangan. Keyin 1867 yilda & quot; Cake Baker & quot; - pirojnoe tayyorlash uchun amaliy retseptlar kitobi chiqadi

1868. Krosbi opera teatridagi okrug balida yuqori oshxona paydo bo'ladi. Jon Rayt tomonidan tayyorlangan, bu "me'moriy-gastronomik" ekstravaganza edi. Unda qandolat saroyi, charlotte russe la la reine, d'Espagnol piramidasi, qandli pagoda ibodatxonasi va ikkita nugat ibodatxonasi bor. Bular dashtli tovuq pirogi, suyakli kurka, suyakli jambon, bedana pirogi va boshqa ko'plab shirin taomlar bilan o'ralgan: to'ng'iz boshi.

1870 -yillar. Ijtimoiy dekoratsiya yuqori darajadagi restoranlarni boshqaradi. Janob Uaylend, Chikagodagi ajoyib o'yin restoranining egasi, Sent -Elmo, Dearborn ko'chasi, 145 -uy, xonim Solsberi bilan ovqatlanishdan bosh tortadi, chunki u bordelloda ishlaydi. Natijada & quot; uni & quot; yaxshi do'sti & quot; faro sotuvchisi Xenk Devis otib tashladi. Xonim Solsberi ovqatni tugatish uchun qolganmi yoki yo'qmi haqida hech qanday ma'lumot yo'q.

1870. Frensis Makbet Glessner xonim uy jurnalini chiqara boshladi. Prairie prospektidagi uyiga e'tibor qaratgan holda, bu yuqori sinf oilasidagi oziq-ovqat yo'llarining 50 yillik misli ko'rilmagan oynasi. Glessner uyi-Chikagoning o'ziga xos "Qavat-pastda." Meksikada ta'tildan so'ng, ular tamales yeydilar. Dengiz mahsulotlari ham mashhur, shu jumladan omar newburg, cho'chqa go'shti va qisqichbaqa.

1871. 1871 yildagi Katta yong'in shahar katalogida atigi 5 ta restoran qoldiradi.

1872. Aaron Montgomeri Uord bir varaqli, 167 ta varaqli pochta orqali buyurtma berish ishini boshlaydi. Oshxona idishlari sotiladigan narsalar qatoriga kiradi. 1900 yilga kelib, katalogda ko'plab oshxona va oziq -ovqat mahsulotlari, masalan, & quot; Chikago asal bilan ishlangan hams & quot; va & quot; Gigant Acme benzinli pechlar & quot; mavjud.

1873. Chikagoning istiridye ta'mi yoqilmagan. Polkovnik Jon E. Uilson 1873 yilda Klark va Madison ko'chalarida Uilsonning istiridye uyini tashkil qiladi. 1890 -yillarda u mashhur Boston istiridye uyiga aylanadi va u erda buyuk istiridye maven Charlz E. rektori o'qitiladi.

1875. Chikago Buyuk olovdan tezda tuzalib ketadi. 1875 yilga kelib 176 ta restoran mavjud. Ulardan 20 tasi italyancha ismga ega, shu jumladan, Bona Tsezar, 92 1/2 Madison, Sent -Chikagoda faqat 550 italiyalik yashaydi.

1877. Italiya taomlari, lekin frantsuzcha oshxonalar tobora ko'proq menyularda paydo bo'ladi. Gardner House mehmonxonasida 1877 yilgi Yangi yil kechki ovqatiga odatdagidek go'shtlar ro'yxati kiradi: "Makaroni en Tembole, a la Parisienne", "Quail en Salmi, sosli perikod" va "Palmer uyi" menyusi 1877 yil noyabrda soddalashtirilgan kashshof. ovqatlanish. Ziravorli istiridye, dudlangan til va jo'xori go'shtidan tayyorlangan taomlardan so'ng, xo'jayin smorodina jeli bilan kiyik biftekini, yashil no'xat qo'shilgan kurka qanotini yoki pishloqli makaronni tanlashi mumkin edi. Garnitürlarga qovurilgan pomidor, qaynatilgan kartoshka, qaynatilgan guruch va qovurilgan parsnips kiradi.

1879. Uells ko'chasida Shloglning salon va restorani ochiladi. Chicago Daily News binosi yaqinida, u asr boshidan keyin bohem suv havzasiga aylanadi. Mashhur gazetachilar, yozuvchilar va rassomlar, masalan, Jon T. Makkuton, Ben Xecht va Karl Sandburg, agar ularning asarlari o'sha kuni chop etilgan bo'lsa, juma kuni u erda bepul ovqatlanadilar.

1880 -yillar. Chapin va Gor-Monro ko'chasidagi 73-75-uy-sport olomonining kafedrasi, uning shiori kresloli sportchiga juda mos keladi: & quot; Yaxshi sharob-ishtaha va ogohlantiruvchi. U dangasa qonni qamrab oladi va ichkariga kiradi, jigar va buyraklarni sug'oradi va ularni mashq qilishga majbur qiladi. Bu tirik narsa va inson hayotiga yillar qo'shadi. & Quot. 1880 -yillarda arzon ovqatlar ko'payadi. Gamburger biftek birinchi marta 1877 yilda Tremont mehmonxonasida & quot; Gamburg -steyk & quot; ko'rinishida paydo bo'ladi.

1880-1920 yillar. Shved immigratsiyasi Chikagoning bir qismini shved qishloqlariga aylantiradi. Smorgasbord restoranlari butun shahar bo'ylab mashhur bo'lib ketdi. Andersonvilda shunchalik ko'p narsa borki, u "Herring xiyoboni" deb nomlanadi. 1890 -yillarda Jon Kruger bu restoranlardan maslahat olardi, lekin u smorgen bord ismini yoqimsiz deb topdi. U kubalik "quotcafiteria" so'zini qabul qildi. 1895 yilga kelib uning shahar markazida beshta joyi bor edi, lekin u oxir -oqibat ot poygasida pulini qimirlatib yubordi.

1884. Chikagodagi lavlagi shakar, sut va makkajo'xori siropidan foydalanish uni qandolatchilik markaziga aylantiradi. 1884 yilda bu erda 69 ta ishlab chiqaruvchilar tomonidan Milliy qandolatchilar uyushmasi tashkil etilgan. Chikago Amerikaning shirin tishiga g'amxo'rlik qilar ekan, 1918 yilda Amerika Stomatologlar Assotsiatsiyasi (1859 yilda Buffaloda tashkil etilgan) va 1917 yilda Amerika Diyetetik Assotsiatsiyasining uyiga aylanadi.

H.H.Kohlsaat yahudiy mijozlari uchun birinchi & quot; tushlik xonasini & quot; ochadi. U aylanadigan taburetlarga ega (lekin hali taqa shaklidagi taymer emas). U o'rtacha narxlarda tezkor xizmat ko'rsatishga ixtisoslashgan.

1885. Charlz C. Yaratuvchi bug'da ishlaydigan yong'oq qovuruvchi va popkorn popperining kombinatsiyasini ixtiro qildi. G'ildiraklarga o'rnatilgan, bu to'p-park va adolatli zımbalar ommaviy sotilishini ta'minlaydi. F.V. va Lui Ryukxaym Chikagodagi popkorn stendida Yaratuvchining yong'oq-popkornli mashinasidan foydalanadilar. 1890 yilda ular o'z mahsulotlarini tatlandırıcılar bilan to'ldirishga qaror qilishdi. Tajriba, melas bilan qoplangan er yong'oqlari bilan aralashtirilgan popkornga olib keladi. Totib ko'rgach, sotuvchilardan biri qichqiradi: & quot; Bu kraker! & Quot;

1886. Richard Sears soatlar sotishni boshladi. Alvah C. Roebuck bilan birgalikda ular Chikagoda yangi katalog sotish kompaniyasini tashkil qiladi. Montgomery Ward singari, u oshxona va oshxona asbob -uskunalarini sotish bo'yicha mamlakatning etakchilaridan biriga aylanadi. 1900 yilga kelib, sotish bo'yicha Sears Montgomery Warddan oshib ketdi. Uy anjomlari 11,96 dollarga sotiladigan va umr bo'yi kafolatlanadigan pechlar bilan biznesning muhim qismiga aylanadi. Sears 1922 yilda elektr muzlatgichlarini sotishni boshlaganda, elektr jihozlari muhim ahamiyat kasb etadi (Amerikada birinchi bo'lib 1918 yilda Kelvinator bo'lgan).

1887. Star and Crescent Milling Co.ga asos solindi. U 1928 yilda General Mills deb o'zgartiriladigan Crosby va Washburn tarkibiga kiradi.

Shuningdek, 1887 yilda 201-203-sonli Klark-Sent-Nyu-Yorkdagi oshxona restorani-bu biznesmenlarga xizmat ko'rsatadigan o'rta toifadagi ovqatlanish modelidir. Uning shiorlari boshqa korxonalardagi kamchiliklarga ishora qiladi: & quot; Tozalik, yaxshi pishirish va tez xizmat ko'rsatish & quot; va & quot; Oshxonaga qaytarib olib kirilmagan va bu restoranda qayta pishirilgan. & Quot;

1888. Eduard Katzinger non pishiradigan tijorat kompaniyasini tashkil qildi. 1960-yillarga kelib, u mamlakatda elektr bo'lmagan uy anjomlari ishlab chiqaruvchi Ekco Housewares Co.ga aylanadi. Ekco 1923 yilda Tsitseron va Armitaj prospektlarida ulkan zavod quradi.

1889. Prezident va xonim Benjamin Xarrison auditoriya teatrining ochilishida ishtirok etishdi. Prezidentning nonushtasi oddiy: maydanozli omlet, porterxaus biftek, qo'y go'shti, pastırma. & quot; Hech qanday bezovtalik yo'q, lekin yaxshi ovqatlanish ”, - deb xabar beradi gazeta.

1890 -yillar. 1891 yilgi Chikago standart yo'riqnomasida shahardagi 600 ta restoran ro'yxati keltirilgan. Rektor Oyster uyi ochiladi. Chikago tarixidagi eng mashhur restavratorlardan biri, sharhlovchi shunday deydi: & quot; Agar xohlagan baliq bo'lsa, (Charlz) rektoriga boring va u buni oladi. & Quot erta oshpazlik yulduzlari. Kokteyllar rektor narxida 15 sent.

1892. Alyuminiy, yangi material, pishiriladigan idishlarga moslashtirilgan. Illinoys sof alyuminiy kompaniyasi Lemont shahrida kostryulkalar ishlab chiqarish uchun tashkil etilgan.

1893. Chikagoda Butunjahon Kolumbiya ko'rgazmasi ochiladi. Ajoyib tadbir 1 milliondan ortiq tashrif buyuruvchilarni o'yin -kulgi, restoran va ishlab chiqarish va qishloq xo'jaligi ko'rgazmalariga jalb qiladi. Yarmarkada taqdim etilgan ko'plab mahsulotlar Amerika taomlari sahnasining asosiy mahsulotiga aylanadi. Ular orasida: kraker Jek, bug'doy qaymog'i, maydalangan bug'doy, pabst ko'k lentali pivo, Wrigley shirali meva saqichi.

Chikagodagi kolbasa ishlab chiqaruvchi kichik korxona Ladanyi va Reyxl oilalari tomonidan sotib olinadi (go'yoki Butunjahon Kolumbiyalik ko'rgazmasida garov tikilgan). S. Halsted ko'chasi 470 da joylashgan zavodda ular 1896 yilga qadar muvaffaqiyat qozonishadi. Ko'p o'tmay, ular 1213-1217 S. Xalsted ko'chasiga ko'chib, Vena kolbasa kompaniyasi sifatida ish olib boradilar.

Chicago Flexible Shaft Co., mexanik ot qaychi yasash uchun yaratilgan. 1910 yilda u elektr dazmolni, 1924 yilda esa birinchi yassi tushdi stolli panjara ishlab chiqaradi. Uy jihozlarining yirik ishlab chiqaruvchisiga aylangan kompaniya 1946 yilda o'z nomini Sunbeam Corp.ga o'zgartiradi.

1897. Elektr asboblari biznesi boshlanadi. Chicago Electric Manufacturing Co. - bitta ishlab chiqaruvchi. Bu & quot; Handyhot & quot; ostida sharbat chiqargichlar, mikserlar va muzqaymoq ishlab chiqaruvchilarni ishlab chiqaradi. 1953 yilda kompaniya Silex tomonidan sotib olinadi va Procter-Silex tarkibiga kiradi.

1900-1930 yillar. Yunon muhojirlari Chikagoga kela boshlaydi. 1910 yilga kelib ularning soni 15 mingga yetdi. Ko'pchilik meva, sabzavot, & quot; issiq & quot; va & quot; va tamotali sotuvchi sotuvchilarga aylanadi. & Quot; 1920 yillarga kelib ko'pchilik hayratlanarli darajada muvaffaqiyat qozondi. Chikagodagi 18000 yunonning 10 ming nafari o'z biznesiga ega, shu jumladan Halsted ko'chasidagi restoranlar.

1900-1910 yillar oralig'ida taxminan 170,000 polyaklar keladi va ularning taomlari Chikagoning oshpazlik landshaftida muhim ahamiyatga ega bo'ladi. 1918 yilda tashkil etilgan Slotkovskiy kolbasa kompaniyasi Polshaning eng mashhur kolbasa mahsulotlarini sotadi.

1930 yilga kelib Chikagodagi yahudiy aholisi 275 ming kishiga yetdi. Ko'pchilik Sharqiy Evropadan kelib, Halsted va Maksvell ko'chalarida istiqomat qilishadi va yahudiy taomlari Maksvell ko'chasidagi bozorning o'ziga xos belgisidir. 1994 yilda shahar asosan ispan bozorini yopadi va Canal ko'chasida "Nuevo Mercado" ni ochadi.

1906. Upton Sinkler "Jungle" ni nashr etadi. Go'sht qadoqlash zavodlaridagi yomon sharoitlar haqidagi ommaviy shov -shuv go'shtni tekshirish to'g'risidagi qonun va toza oziq -ovqat va dori -darmon to'g'risidagi qonunning qabul qilinishiga olib keladi. Oskar Mayer o'sha yili go'sht nazorati bo'yicha federal markani olgan birinchi go'sht sotuvchilardan biri.

1908. Taxminan 1908 yilda afroamerikalik frinchlar oilasi Evanston prospektida (hozirgi Brodveyda) Frinches Pantry-ni boshlaydi. Bu Chikagodagi birinchi integratsiyalangan restoran.

Sutni pasterizatsiya qilishni talab qiladigan birinchi qonun Chikagoda qabul qilingan.

1910 -yillar. Xitoy restoranlari asrning boshlarida tobora ommalashib bormoqda. 1910 shahar katalogining nomlari 64. Birinchisi - taniqli Joy Lo King, 100 Vt. Randolf Sent. Bir necha yuz kishiga mo'ljallangan, ofitsiantlari dumli rasmiy kiyim kiyib, orkestr ovqatlanuvchilarni xushnud etadi. Loopdagi boshqa klassik xitoy restoranlariga Shimoliy Klark ko'chasidagi Joy Xing Lo va Shimoliy shtat ko'chasidagi Joy Yen Lo kiradi. Ammo shahar markazidagi xitoy restoranlari bifteklari bilan eng mashhur!

Birinchi jahon urushi evropalik immigratsiyani to'xtatadi va shimolga afro-amerikaliklarning Buyuk ko'chishi uchun zamin yaratadi. Ular o'zlari bilan oziq -ovqat yo'llarini, shu jumladan barbekyu stendlarini olib kelishadi. 1940 yilga kelib, barbekyu restoranlari va tovuq kulbalari shunchalik ko'pki, ular Negro biznes uyushmasining "Moviy kitob" dagi alohida ro'yxatini baholaydilar.

1917. Armor Co. uy -ro'zg'or buyumlarini, & quot; Uy bekasi bo'lish ishi & quot; ni nashr etishi ajablanarli emas, buklet Armor & quotVeribest & quot; mahsulotlarini targ'ib qiladi. Unda konservalarga asoslangan birinchi retseptlar keltirilgan. & quotLuncheon Beef Stew & quot piyoz, kartoshka, Veribest pomidor sho'rva qutisi, Veribest Luncheon Meat, Veribest Peas qutisi va Veribest ziravorli sousidan tayyorlanadi.

1918. Yanvar oyida Chikagoda Davlat mudofaa kengashi tomonidan berilgan "Buyuk vatanparvar taomlar ko'rgazmasi" ko'riladi. Barcha retseptlar berilgan kitob afsonaga ega, & quot; Bu kitobda keltirilgan tavsiyalar va retseptlarga amal qilish har bir ayolning vatanparvarlik burchidir. & Quot; Qovoqsiz taomlar orasida qaymoqli quyon, bosh pishloq, tamale pirogi, tost ustidagi kaptar, g'oz bor guruch timbali va & quot; aposum & quot (sirka va limon sharbati bilan bir kechada marinadlang).

1919. AQSh Konstitutsiyasiga 18 -marta o'zgartirish kiritildi, bu safar spirtli ichimliklar sotishni taqiqlash. Gangsterlarga xudo tomonidan yuborilgan taqiq, salonlarda bepul tushlik tugashini ko'radi. Hamma joyda tushlik peshtaxtalari va soda buloqlari paydo bo'ladi. gaplar kabi.

1920 -yillar. Trentlik italiyalik immigrant Dario Toffanetti Sheridan yo'li, Brodvey va Montrose prospekti burchagidagi kichik restoranni sotib oladi va uni Uchburchak deb ataydi. Loopga ko'chib o'tib, u restoran oynasida oshpaz oqini kiyib, shakar bilan tuzlangan jambon o'yib, biznes quradi. Ajoyib sotuvchi Toffanetti 1200 kishilik restoran tarmog'ini quradi.

1910-1920 yillar. Qisqichbaqalar de Yonghe Belgiya restavratori Anri de Yongxaga tegishli mashhur De Jonghe mehmonxona va restoranida tug'ilgan. Restoran taqiq qoidalarini buzgani uchun 1930 yilda yopiladi.

X. Teller Archibald o'zining "Fanni May" konfet do'konini S. S. LaSalle ko'chasida 10da ochadi. U 1137 W. Jekson Blvd. Fanni Mey kim? Ismning kelib chiqishi sirligicha qolmoqda.

1925. Kremli idishlar 50 yil davomida Amerika dietasining asosiy mahsulotiga aylanadi. 1925 yilda "Plough's Restaurant" menyusida tovuq la la king (75 sent), qisqichbaqa go'shti la laburg (1,50 dollar), oddiy qaymoqli tovuq (90 sent), tovuq au gratin (75 tsent) va qaymoqli qisqichbaqalar va guruch (75 sent) mavjud.

1927. Chikagodagi MacLeod Manufacturing Co., Dormeyer kompaniyasi uchun yangi elektr va kvartirali chig'anoq ishlab chiqaradi. Ular 1931 yilga kelib, Chicago Flexible Shaft (keyinchalik Sunbeam) Mixmaster ishlab chiqarganda mashhur bo'lib ketadilar.

Leonard Japp Janubiy yonboshdagi atıştırmalıklar distribyutorini topdi. 1930 -yillarga kelib, u Japp xonimning kartoshka chiplari nomi bilan kartoshka chiplari tayyorlamoqda. 1941 yil dekabr oyida yaponlarning Pearl -Harborga qilgan hujumidan so'ng, nom birdan Jeyning kartoshka chiplari bo'lib o'zgaradi.

Leonard Japp Janubiy yonboshdagi atıştırmalıklar distribyutorini topdi. 1930 -yillarga kelib, u Japp xonimning kartoshka chiplari nomi bilan kartoshka chiplari tayyorlamoqda. 1941 yil dekabr oyida yaponlarning Pearl -Harborga qilgan hujumidan so'ng, nom birdan Jays Kartoshka Chipsiga o'zgaradi.

1929. Qora juma, 1929 yildagi fond bozori inqirozi, Buyuk Depressiyani boshlaydi. 1933 yilga kelib oilaning daromadi 40 foizga, ishsizlarning 30 foizi kamayadi. Non satrlari har bir shaharda paydo bo'ladi, hatto Al Kapone ham ochadi.

1930. Antoinette va Francois Pap, oshxona kitoblari mualliflari va o'qituvchilari, Antuanette Papaning chiroyli oshpazlik maktabini ochadilar. 1951 yilda Fransua va ularning o'g'illari Frank va Robert "ijodiy oshpazlik" teledasturida birinchi bo'lib ayol ayol iqtisodchilar hukmron bo'lgan hududda erkaklar uchun birinchi marta chiqish qilishdi.

1933. Taqiq 1933 yilda 18 -tuzatish bekor qilinishi bilan tugaydi. Berghoff restorani Chikagoda birinchi bo'lib spirtli ichimliklar uchun litsenziya oldi.

Chikagoda "Taraqqiyot asri" jahon ko'rgazmasi ochiladi. U ko'plab mahsulotlarni, shu jumladan Miracle qamchi bilan tanishtiradi.

1934. Ingliz taomlari mutaxassisi Andre Saymon tashrifidan so'ng, Oziq -ovqat va vino jamiyatining Chikago bo'limi tuzildi. Arnold Shircliffe & quot; Chikagodagi eskofir & quot; bu oshxona jamiyatini boshqaradi. Qoidalar orasida kechki ovqatdan oldin kokteyllar yo'q (chunki ular ta'mni susaytiradi), kechki ovqat paytida chekmaslik (xuddi shu sababga ko'ra), stolda ziravorlar yoki non va sariyog 'bo'lmasligi (ular oshpazning mahoratini maskalashadi) va ichish paytida suv ichish mumkin emas. ovqatlar (chunki boy ovqatlar bilan birga qabul qilinganda suv yog'larning birikishiga olib keladi).

1930-1950 yillar. Genri Devis, Vena kolbasa kompaniyasining sotuvchisi va ishlab chiqaruvchisi, Chikagodagi ko'plab hot -dog stendlarini qurishga yordam beradi va hatto yordam beradi. Do'sti Ray Krok uni Des Plaines shahridagi yangi gamburger stendiga tashrif buyurishga taklif qilganda, Devis aytganidek: & quot; Chikagoda sosiskosiz hech qachon muvaffaqiyat qozonmaydi. & Quot; Qanday bo'lmasin, McDonald's tirik qoldi.

1943. Teksaslik Ayk Sewell va uning sherigi, restavrator Rik Rikkardo, ingichka qobiqli pizza tayyorlash uchun to'la taom tayyorlash yo'lini topdilar. Ular Chikagodagi chuqur pishiriladigan pizza ixtiro qilishadi (yoki shunday deyishadi) va unga xizmat ko'rsatish uchun Pitseriya Unoni ochadilar. Pitzerias Uno va Due pitssaning asl retseptini saqlab qoladi va uni asl bir soat kutadi.

1947. Ikkinchi jahon urushidan keyin Chikagoga ikkinchi buyuk qora migratsiya boshlanadi. G'arbiy tomonda Madison ko'chasidagi Edna restoranlari va ko'plab qovurg'a bo'g'imlari kabi mashhur taomlar restoranlari paydo bo'ladi.

1950 -yillar. Chikagodagi ovqatlanish sahnasi - bu eklektik aralashma. E. Adams ko'chasidagi 71 -uydagi Charlz Foley kabi steakhauslar Don Votning Blackhawk bilan raqobatlashadi, N. Vabash shoh ko'chasi, 139. Loopda yahudiylarning shirin taomlari ko'p, ular orasida Gibby's 192 Greyshound terminali yaqinida buyurtma berish mumkin. tug'ralgan tovuq jigari, & quotgefullte & quot baliq, pishloq blintzi, cho'chqa go'shti bo'lagi, janubiy qovurilgan tovuq yoki ko'mirda qovurilgan biftek.

1951. Jorj Stiven, Chikagodagi Weber Brothers Metal Works kompaniyasi xodimi, bir-biriga bog'liq bo'lmagan ikkita metall shaklni choynak shaklidagi panjara qilib, ularni Jorjning Barbekyu choynagi sifatida sotishni boshladi. 1965 yilda Weber Brothers bo'linmasi Weber-Stephen Products Co. ga aylantirildi.

1953. Jak, Michigan shoh ko'chasi, 900. Chikagodagi eng yaxshi frantsuz restorani bo'lishi mumkin. Bu erda ob -havoning kamdan -kam uchraydigan paytlarida ochiq havoda ovqatlanish mumkin.

1960 -yillar. 60 -yillarning oxirida, Chikagodagi Meksika aholisi keskin oshdi. Meksika taomlari va mahsulotlari Chikagoning oshxona ta'mini o'zgartiradi. Salsa inqilobi, Meksika mahsulotlarining ko'payishi jiddiy tarzda boshlanadi.

1962. Gordon Segal Chikagoning Old Town mahallasida uy anjomlari do'konini ochadi. U buni Crate & amp Barrel deb ataydi. Segal imperiyasi qirg'oqdan qirg'oqqa 70 do'konni o'z ichiga oladi.

1963. Lui Sathmari noyabr oyida "Nonvoyxonani" ochadi. Bu Chikagoga zamonaviy kontinental menyuni olib kelishda kashshof. Oshpaz Lui milliy mashhur va mashhur bibliofilga aylanadi.

1966. Nyu -Yorkdagi import - Tootsie Roll Industries. 70 yoshli amerikalik qandolat belgisi Chikagoga Ford City sanoat parkidagi yangi zavod bilan keladi.

1968. Piter Lo Chikagodagi Shimoliy prospektdagi Xitoy choyxonasida Mandarin-Szechwan-Hunan oshxonasini ochadi. 70-yillarning boshlariga kelib, Mandarin-Szechwan Ostin Kuning Xunan uyi, Xovard ko'chasidagi Peking o'rdak uyi, keyinchalik Tan sulolasi va Szechwan uyi (hozirgi Sharqiy Szekvan) kabi restoranlarning g'azabiga aylanadi.

1971. Restorator Rich Melman R.J.ni ochadi. Grunt iyun oyida Linkoln Park G'arbida, Marul sizni xushnud etadigan oshpazlik imperiyasi urug'ini sepdi.

1979. Frantsuz Chikagoda ovqatlanishni boshqaradi. Chikago jurnali o'quvchilarining so'roviga ko'ra, eng yaxshi etti restorandan beshtasi frantsuz. Ikkinchi darajadagi 14 kishidan sakkiztasi frantsuz yoki frantsuzcha ilhomlangan. (Yuqori restoranlarni nomlay olasizmi? Eng yaxshisi: Berghoff, Cape Cod Room, L'Escargot, La Fontaine, Le Francais, Jovan, Tango.)

19 -asrdan beri Chikagodagi birinchi dehqon bozori Linkoln maydonida va Or -O -Yardda ochiladi. Keyingi 20 yil ichida shahar aholisi pomidor haqiqatan ham qizil va mazali bo'lishi mumkinligini aniqlagach, ularning soni oshadi.

1980. Chikagoning birinchi ta'mi Michigan prospektida bo'lib o'tadi, unda 200 mingga yaqin odam qatnashdi.

1997. Yanvar oyida uy anjomlari Xalqaro ko'rgazmasi Chikagoda 100 -marta paydo bo'ladi. Uning debyuti 1939 yil 8 -yanvarda Palmer uyida bo'lib o'tdi. Yillar davomida namoyish etilgan mahsulotlar orasida: Birds Eye muzlatilgan taomlar (1939) Corning Ware (1958) aka-ukalarning Veg-O-Matic (1963) Hutzler's Cook's n Melamin asboblariga xizmat qiling (1968 yildagi Dizayn mukofoti g'olibi) va Raqibning Crock-Pot (1971).


15 Meksika pivosi reytingida - nima uchun ular bizning sevimli importimizga aylanmoqda

Oshpaz Diana Davila dasturxonimizning birinchi qismini yugurdi. Bu ikkita tako edi, biri qattiq go'shtli va sho'r, ikkinchisi nozik, qatlamli vegetarian zavqi. U tabassum bilan plastinkalarni qo'ydi va keta boshladi. Bu shanba kuni kechqurun uning restoranidagi poyabzal qutisida jonli edi, lekin men uni to'xtatdim.

- Menyuga qaysi pivo yoqadi? Men so'radim.

U javob bera boshladi, keyin o'zini to'xtatdi. Shubhasiz, u mendan o'zining sevimli taomini Mi Tocaya Antojeria -da, Logan Square restoranida, Davila mart oyida Meksikada yashagan va sayohat qilgan vaqtiga muhabbat maktubi sifatida ochishimni kutgan edi.

Pivo ro'yxati Meksikaning oltita importidan - Corona, Modelo Especial, Modelo Negra, Pacifico, Sol va Viktoriya - va mahalliy mahalliy pivodan tayyorlangan. Menga Meksika pivosini olib kirganday tuyulgan menyu ruhida men Viktoriyani tanladim, chunki uning ta'mi qanday bo'lganini eslay olmadim.

Baxtli tasodifda Davila shunday javob berdi: "Viktoriya - mening eng yaxshi ko'rgan pivo ichadigan meksikalik".

Mening pivo shishasidagi yorliq uning yuziga qaragan, shuning uchun u aylanib, yorqinroq bo'lib ketdi.

That cold 12-ounce bottle of Victoria had arrived at our small table with a thud — a handsome bottle with a white-and-yellow painted label featuring "Victoria" written in elegant cursive with long sloping lines curling off the "V" and the "A." A sliver of lime poked out from the rim. I couldn't remember the last time I'd been served a beer in a bottle. Or the last time I'd resisted the urge to ask for a glass.

To see exactly what I was dealing with, I cast aside the lime and took a swig.

Victoria was bright, dry and refreshing with just the faintest malt body to make it interesting. It was simple and clean, with no cloying grain notes weighing it down. It worked especially well in the context of Davila's menu, providing a tidy counterpoint to the weight and complexity of the meaty taco, the tender ahi tuna atop rich mole verde and lightly gamy lamb meatballs coated in a fiery red ranchero sauce.

Halfway through the meal, I tried my luck with a second beer: Modelo Especial, which has overtaken Corona as the biggest-selling imported beer in some markets (including Chicago).

Not the worst but a bit too much of that cloying grain flavor not present in Victoria. Unlike Victoria, it was better with lime.

I spent the next couple of weeks drinking 15 imported Mexican beers, weighing what works, what doesn't and why the style has been a rocket in the American beer market for the past 20 years, since Corona overtook Heineken as the nation's biggest-selling import.

According to Chicago-based market research firm IRI, Mexican beer has accounted for nearly 70 percent of imported beer sales during the past year — and growing. Nine of the nation's top 54 brands are Mexican imports, including two of the top seven (Corona Extra and Modelo Especial).

The old faithful top four brands — Bud Light, Coors Light, Budweiser and Miller Lite — are all down or flat from a year ago while their Mexican competitors are up: Corona nearly 9 percent, Modelo Especial 24 percent and Modelo Negra (recently rechristened from Negra Modelo), Pacifico and Modelo Especial Chelada all in the neighborhood of 20 to 30 percent.

So what's going on with Mexican beer? Though the best Mexican imports are legitimately tasty, it's not just quality at work if it were, three of the biggest sellers — Corona Extra, Modelo Especial and Sol — wouldn't be packaged in clear glass, which allows light to degrade beer in literal seconds. (The result is a taste most often referred to as "skunky.")

The answer is a complex mix of demographics, marketing, history and nostalgia. Mexico is the sun-dappled place where we are from. Or it is where our family is from. Or it is where we vacation. We adore its food. And its impact on our culture is growing.

Mexico's brewing history dates to the arrival of German and Austrian immigrants in the mid-1800s, who made the Vienna lager — a clean lager with faint malt-forward heft (Samuel Adams Boston Lager is a modern example) — a common staple. However, like its American neighbor, body- and taste-lightening adjuncts slowly worked their way into recipes, and consolidation pushed the industry toward a lowest common denominator. Most major Mexican brands are currently in the hands of two dominant players: Grupo Modelo (owned by Anheuser-Busch InBev, though its brands in the United States have been divested — more on that to come) and Cerveceria Cuauhtemoc Moctezuma (a subsidiary of Heineken International.)

For Davila, the appeal of Mexican beer lies in both personal history and the quality among the top tier. She is a first-generation American whose parents emigrated from San Luis Potosi, 250 miles north of Mexico City. She spent summers there from the ages of 6 to 18. Davila grew up in the Chicago suburbs, but Mexican beer reminds her of home.

"Victoria reminds me of the times we'd take an hour trip to the beach," she said.

It's also what she wants to drink alongside her food. Davila thought hard about assembling a lengthy list of craft beers for her restaurant — it's just what new restaurants do in 2017 — but she decided she'd rather do what's best for her food.

"When you think about Mexican food, and how complex and big and bold the flavors are, Mexican beer goes perfect," she said. "I feel like food and beer pairings have gone off the wall. They can be fun, but when you're eating something, I like contrast. Mexican lagers are the perfect contrast. Why would I want to eat something with all these things going on in it and then a beer with all these things going on? They cross each other out and confuse the palate."

As a nod to craft beer, she opened with one tap reserved for Huitzi, a fairly complex strong golden ale brewed with hibiscus flowers, ginger, Thai palm sugar and honey made by local Latin brewery 5 Rabbit Cerveceria. She's planning to add two more taps: one for 5 Rabbit golden ale and a low-alcohol, fruit-forward beer called Paletas.

But her biggest seller has been Modelo Especial, followed by Victoria ("the majority of staff is Mexican and they love it") and Sol. In a neighborhood rooted somewhat in counterculture — at least as compared to, say, Lincoln Park — her customers tend to shun Corona as a mainstream option. She wondered if those same customers would be aghast at a beer list lacking, as she called it, "bougie beer." Especially IPA.

"No one has said anything," she said.

But here's the funny little secret about Mexican imports: Many are barely imports.

All Corona, Modelo, Pacifico and Victoria beer in the U.S. is brewed just outside the city of Piedras Negras, a mere 12 miles from the border with Texas. Anheuser-Busch InBev and Grupo Modelo were forced to divest the brewery and the U.S. rights to those brands by the U.S. Department of Justice as part of those companies merging in 2013.

The brands and the Piedras Negras brewery went to Constellation Brands, which had been importing and marketing the beers for 30 years. Suddenly it was also in the business of production, which it plans to augment with a new brewery in Mexicali, along the California border, in late 2019.

The loss of the Modelo portfolio was a blow for Anheuser-Busch InBev, whose bedrock domestic brands are mostly losing share. The company tried to compensate by importing Montejo (popular in the Yucatan) in 2014 and Estrella Jalisco (from the state of Jalisco) last year. Distributed in 12 states, including Illinois, Estrella Jalisco has performed reasonably well but lags far behind the Modelo brands. Montejo, which is available in Texas and California, has failed to make much of a dent.

Though Heineken International has several strong brands via Cerveceria Cuauhtemoc Moctezuma — Dos Equis, Sol and Tecate among them — Constellation is the clear leader in the U.S.

"Mexican beer is popular, but it's not just about developing a Mexican imported brand and throwing it out there because that doesn't necessarily work," Constellation spokesman Mike McGrew said. "Brands still matter. We are in a very, very fortunate position because we have been building our brands for more than 30 years."

Corona, for instance, has thrived when sold to Americans as beach, fun, sun and relaxation in a bottle. There may be no beer industry campaign in recent memory more effective than "Find Your Beach," accompanied by spare, alluring images of beach and ocean.

But growth for Modelo Especial has been in double digits for 30 years, McGrew said. Hispanic consumers drove the growth until about three years ago, when a more multicultural audience kicked in. Next, the company has similar plans for Pacifico (framed as "embodying the spirit of Baja . the adventure-seeker consumer," McGrew said) and ultimately, Victoria, which so far only gets Spanish-language advertising and retail support in the U.S.

Riding the coattails of Modelo Especial is Modelo Negra, a darker, malt-forward, food-friendly beer. Constellation is also using its portfolio to take a stab at innovation: low-calorie Corona Premier is being test-marketed in Atlanta, Charlotte, N.C., and Texas as a potential challenger to one of Anheuser-Busch InBev's strongest brands: Michelob Ultra.

Even American craft beer is taking notice.

Flying Dog, Oskar Blues, Ska and 21st Amendment breweries have all released Mexican-style lagers, joined in recent months by Sun King in Indianapolis (called Pachanga), Cleveland's Great Lakes (Grandes Lagos, a lager brewed with hibiscus) and Uinta in Salt Lake City, which introduced Lime Pilsner in early spring.

Isaac Winter, Uinta's head brewer of research and development, drank endless amounts of Tecate, Dos Equis and Pacifico while figuring out what Lime Pilsner should taste like.

"I'm not bashful about saying this — I really like Modelo and Tecate," Winter said, adding that his favorite is Pacifico. "I tend to think of a lot of Mexican imports as drinkable and refreshing and not too heavy."

Winter points out that the best ones also boast slightly fruity esters from the yeast used, whereas "a lot of domestic beers use boring yeasts."

Winter's gripe against some Mexican imports is the same one I developed from drinking through those 15 beers over the course of a couple of weeks: Several are too sweet.

"Sometimes breweries add too many crystal malts — sweet malts — that make the beer too cloying," Winter said. "That does not lend itself to drinkability. There were a few beers that I felt on my teeth afterward."

He declined to name the beers too cloying for his taste, but I have no such issues: I'll always take a Tecate with a squeeze or two of fresh lime over a Corona for precisely this reason. Or even a Corona Light over a Corona. Corona Light might taste like carbonated carpet, but at least it dries out. And with an ample infusion of fresh lime, it's passable.

Uinta's Lime Pilsner is what a lot of these beers should be it's lean, dry and effervescent up front, followed by a long citrus finish. It was initially intended as a summer-only release, but interest from distributors was so fierce that it quickly became a year-round offering. In a sense, American craft's embrace of Mexican imports is the biggest compliment imaginable. Who knows — a couple might even make it onto Davila's beer list.


ALASKA: Lane's Quickie Tacos in Fairbanks

Kelley T./Yelp

"Best tacos I've had in Alaska so far," wrote one Yelp reviewer. "I loved the hand-made tortillas and the taco combinations. I'd come here every week if I could."

At Lane's Quickie Tacos you can expect to purchase these five tacos all-year-round: The Alaskan, The Texan, The 'Merican, The Hippie, and The Kiddo. The sixth taco is always chosen randomly, so you're in for a surprise every time you come in.


Ulashing All sharing options for: Suburban Pepe’s restaurant franchise owner pleads guilty to underreporting $2.5M in sales

The Dirksen Federal Courthouse Sun-Times file

The owner of five Chicago-area Pepe’s Mexican Restaurant franchises pleaded guilty in federal court Monday to omitting about $2.5 million in sales from his corporate tax returns.

Juan C. Hurtado of Joliet pleaded guilty to one count of making a false statement in a tax return, a charge punishable by up to three years in prison, according to the U.S. Attorney’s Office in Chicago.

Hurtado owned a Pepe’s franchise in Chicago, at 7026 S. Archer Ave. in the Garfield Ridge neighborhood, according to his plea agreement. He also owned south-suburban locations in Tinley Park, Hickory Hills, Matteson and Chicago Heights.

In the plea agreement, Hurtado admitted that from 2016 to 2018 he was responsible for filing 11 false corporate tax returns with the Internal Revenue Service.

He allegedly underreported the receipts and sales of his restaurants by about $2.5 million. Hurtado also allegedly admitted to making false sales reports that he gave to his accountants.


California: El Tepeyac

Los Anjeles
It's not that the burritos at El Tepeyac are particularly cheap, it's that they're so big, it generally takes two people to finish one, which makes them half price by default. TripAdvisor fans rave about the size, but also the sheer quality — many call it the best burrito in the burrito mecca of Los Angeles. Manuel's Special Burrito weighs in at more than 5 pounds, according to El Tepeyac, but a competitive eating competition that includes the house favorite as a challenge lists the gargantuan delicacy at 4.5 pounds. Free delivery with orders over $25, too.


CHD Expert Evaluates the Mexican Restaurant Industry, the Second Most Popular Menu Type in the USA

Americans love Mexican food, and not just on Cinco de Mayo. While once mainly popular in the southwest, the Mexican Menu Type has gone on to conquer much of the country, thanks in part to not only its flavor, but also its convenience and budget-friendly prices. Considering the popularity of Mexican cuisine across the country, CHD Expert, a global leader in aggregating, analyzing, and managing foodservice data, evaluates recent trends in the Mexican restaurant landscape across the USA.

“From small taquerias with a loyal local customer base, to the chains with addicted millennial customers, our nations Mexican restaurants are a deep well of demand for businesses who want to sell more into this menu type.” said Catherine Kearns, General Manager of CHD Expert The Americas. “Many distributors and suppliers have niche products focused towards restaurants that serve Mexican food, and it is important for them to understand their sales potential and where opportunities lie within this lucrative menu type.”

As of April 2017, there are more than 59,800 Mexican restaurants in the United States and the Mexican Menu Type represents approximately 9 percent of all restaurants in the USA. At the time of this release, Mexican edged out Pizzerias for the second most common non-simplified US menu type, with Pizzeria falling into the third position with approximately 59,300 Pizzeria restaurants across the USA.

As a whole, the Mexican menu type generates approximately $45 billion in annual retail sales, averaging approximately $766,000 per unit.

Broken down by segment, 58 percent of Mexican restaurants are Full Service Restaurants and 42 percent are Limited Service Restaurants. By definition FSRs operate with a wait staff and offer table service, while LSRs require food to be purchased at a counter and paid for before food is served.

Breaking these LSR operators down, Taco Bell makes up 42 percent of all LSR Mexican Chain restaurants. This Yum Brand juggernaut continues to captivate the millennial customer with menu innovations, from the Doritos Locos Taco to their newly available, Naked Breakfast Taco and Mexican Crispy Chicken Pizza. The other most prevalent Mexican chains are Chipotle Mexican Grill (15%), Qdoba Mexican Grill (4.4%), Moe’s Southwest Grill (3.9%), and Del Taco (3.6%).

According to CHD Expert’s data, 52 percent of Mexican Menu Type LSRs are Chains, whereas only 3 percent of Mexican Menu Type restaurants are FSRs Chains (CHD Expert classifies an independent as a restaurant with nine or less units in operation.)

Within the FSR market segment, 85 percent of the restaurants fall within the Casual Dining category, followed by Family Style (12%), Upscale Dining (3%) and Fine Dining (less than 1%). Chuy’s and On The Border represent two of the larger Mexican FSR chains.

And while there are only a handful of Fine Dining Mexican restaurants across the nation, some of these eateries offer the finest dining experiences one can experience across the nation. Including celebrity chef Rick Bayless’s TOPOLOBAMPO in Chicago, which grosses more than $5 Million annually and a $50+ average check.

Geographically speaking, it’s no surprise that the state of Texas is el jefe in terms of total Mexican restaurants within its state lines, with 18 percent of the state’s total restaurants being of the Mexican Menu Type, two times higher than the national average. And to further validate the southwest roots of Mexican cuisine in the USA New Mexico (14%), California (13%), Arizona (13%), and Colorado (12%) round out the top five states with the largest percentage of the Mexican menu type within the state’s total restaurant landscape.

CHD Expert packaged the most interesting facts and figures into a trends report designed to help foodservice industry professionals better understand the Mexican restaurant landscape in the United States.


Kolorado

To think, you might have gone your entire life without knowing about the sugar steak, the specialty of the house at Bastien’s ichida Denver, a serious steakhouse trapped, and happily so, in the body of a 1950s West Coast coffee shop-style structure, with whimsical, oversized neon signage out front to complete the illusion. The signature preparation here is simple, but terribly effective�ing white and brown sugar to the savory rub softens up even the most macho bone-in ribeye, resulting one seriously tender steak, never served here, proudly, beyond medium-rare.

If it is seriously vintage steakhouse vibes you’re after, Denver’s Buckhorn Exchange is, loudly and proudly, one of America’s oldest restaurants, established in 1893. The walls are a taxidermy enthusiast’s dream, and the Rocky Mountain Oysters remain one of the most famous dishes on the menu. Snap back to the almost-present at the Barolo Grill, which remains in many respects a portal to 1990s Denver restaurant culture a refreshed menu and expanded wine cellar, however, after the long-time general manager bought the restaurant in 2015, has kept the place feeling essential all these years later, it’s one of the city’s best. In Morrison, barely beyond the reaches of the ever-expanding Front Range suburbs, Qal'a gained no small amount of national attention after opening in the 1960s, thanks to its colorful proprietor Sam Arnold, an early proponent of adding wild game to modern restaurant menus. To this day, elk, quail and buffalo are staples.


Tortilla and Taco History

The versatility of the tortilla as a wrapper in endless. They are used for tacos and enchiladas, among native Mexicans, tortillas are commonly used as eating utensils, as a plate as in a tostada, and much more. In the United States the tortilla is no longer seen as just an ethnic bread. This is partially due to the increase of the Hispanic population.

Check out What’s Cooking America’s Tortilla Recipe: Tortillas – How To Make Tortillas.

Tortillas History:

In northern Mexico and much of the United States, tortilla means the flour version. Flour tortillas are the foundation of Mexican border cooking and a relatively recent import. Their popularity was driven by the low cost of inferior grades of flour provided to border markets and by their ability to keep and ship well.

3000 B.C. – Excavations in the valley of “Valle de Tehuac”, in the state of Puebla, revealed the use, for more than seven thousand years, of the basic cereal by excellence of the Mesoamerican diet, a little wild cob that along with roots and fruit was a complement for hunting. According to Agust Gayt, chef and Mexican cuisine historian, in a Greeley Tribune newspaper article:

Sometime about 3000 B.C., people of the Sierra Madre mountains in Mexico hybridized wild grasses to produce large, nutritious kernels we know as corn. Mexican anthropologist and maize historian Arturo Warman credits the development of corn with the rise of Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Mayans and the Aztecs, which were advanced in art, architecture, math and astronomy. The significance of corn was not lost on indigenous cultures that viewed it as a foundation of humanity. It is revered as the seed of life. According to legend, human beings were made of corn by the Gods.”

By the time Spaniards reached the shores of what is now Mexico in the 1400s, indigenous Mesoamericans had a sophisticated and flavorful cuisine based on native fruits, game, cultivated beans and corn and domesticated turkeys.

1519 – When Hern Cort (1485-1547), also known as Hernando Cortez, and his conquistadores arrived in the New World on April 22, 1519, they discovered that the inhabitants (Aztecs Mexicas) made flat corn breads. The native Nahuatl name for these was tlaxcalli. The Spanish gave them the name tortilla. In Cort’ 1920 second letter to King Charles V of Spain, he describes the public markets and the selling of maize or Indian corn:

This city has many public squares, in which are situated the markets and other places for buying and selling. . . where are daily assembled more than sixty thousand souls, engaged in buying and selling and where are found all kinds of merchandise that the world affords, embracing the necessaries of life, as for instance articles of food. . . maize or Indian corn, in the grain and in the form of bread, preferred in the grain for its flavor to that of the other islands and terra-firma.

1529 – In the monumental manuscript books, General History of the Things of New Spain (Historia general de las cosas de Nueva Espana), by the Franciscan friar Bernardino de Sahagun (1450-1590), it is known that the Aztec diet was based on corn and tortillas, tamales and plenty of chilies in many varieties. Considered one of the fathers of culinary history. He compiled and translated testimonies of his culinary informants from the native language Nahuatl into Spanish. His work is the most complete record of Aztec foods and eating habits.

Sahagun was sent to New Spain (Mexico) to compile, in the Aztec language, a compendium of all things relating to the native history and custom that might be useful in the labor of Christianizing the Indians. The work thus undertaken occupied some seven years, in collaboration with the best native authorities, and was expanded into a history and description of the Aztec people and civilization in twelve manuscript books, together with a grammar (Arte) and dictionary of the language.

1940 -yillar – In the 1940s and ‘50s, one of the first widespread uses of small scale gas engines and electric motors was to power wet grain grinders for making masa. A hand press or hand patting were used to form the masa into tortillas.

1960 -yillar – Early tortillas took hours to make but by the 1960s, small-scale tortilla-making machines could churn out hot, steaming tortillas every two seconds.

Taco History:

In Mexico, the word taco is a generic term like the English word sendvich. A taco is simply a tortilla wrapped around a filling. Like a sandwich, the filling can be made with almost anything and prepared in many different ways (anything that can be rolled inside a tortilla becomes a taco). The contents of a taco can vary according to the geographical region you are eating them. The taco can be eaten as an entree or snack. They are made with soft corn or fried corn tortillas folded over.


1520
– Bernal Diaz del Castillo (1496-1584), a Spanish soldier who came with Hern Cort to the New World, wrote an intriguing and detailed chronicles called A True History of the Conquest of New Spain. He also chronicled the lavish feasts that were held. From the article by Sophie Avernin called Tackling the taco: A guide to the art of taco eating:

The first “taco bash” in the history of New Spain was documented by none other than Bernal Diaz del Castillo. Hernan Cortes organized this memorable banquet in Coyoacan for his captains, with pigs brought all the way from Cuba. It would, however, be a mistake to think that Cortes invented the taco, since anthropologists have discovered evidence that inhabitants of the lake region of the Valley of Mexico ate tacos filled with small fish, such as acosiles and charales. The fish were replaced by small live insects and ants in the states of Morelos and Guerrero, while locusts and snails were favorite fillings in Puebla and Oaxaca.

1914 – The first-known English-language taco recipes appeared in California cookbooks beginning in 1914. Bertha Haffner-Ginger, in her cookbook California Mexican-Spanish Cook Book said tacos were:

“made by putting chopped cooked beef and chili sauce in a tortilla made of meal and flour folded, edges sealed together with egg fried in deep fat, chile sauce served over it.”

1929 – Pauline Wiley-Kleemann in here cookbook Ramona’s Spanish-Mexican Cookery, featured six taco and tacquito recipes. These included recipes for Gorditos that came from Santa Nita or Xochimilco, Pork Tacos composed of snout, ears, jowls, kidneys, and liver, Cream Cheese Tacos, Egg Tacos, Mexican Tacos, and Tacquitos

Taqueria or taco trucks are found throught the West and Southwest of the United States. There are two kinds of taco trucks traveling trucks that cruise around neighborhoods and business areas, and non-cruising trucks parked permanently in lots.

Karen Hursh Graber in her article Wrap It Up: A Guide to Mexican Street Tacos says the following on the different types of tacos in Mexico:

Many foreigners come to Mexico with the idea that they can get tacos any time, but this is not generally true. Looking for tacos around midday, perhaps at the time of the gringo lunch, will not normally be a successful pursuit. Tacos are either a morning treat or a nighttime snack, pretty much disappearing between the hours of noon and six p.m. This is because the main meal in Mexico is eaten in the afternoon. Not to worry: by about six the smell of meat begins to permeate the air and the taquers are back in business. . .

From noon until about six there are almost no tacos available morning vendors are closed until the next day. Right around dusk, however, there is a perceptible change in the atmosphere of the street following the afternoon lull. Permanent puestos, stalls and storefront taquers begin opening, and ambulatory taco carts roll into place, usually connecting the wires from their naked light bulbs into overhead lines. . . The most compelling signal of “taco time”, however, is the aroma. Of all the street food in Mexico, the taco is King of the Night, attracting clients with the appetizing scent of grilled, fried or steamed meat. Since the big meal of the day is eaten in the afternoon, many people opt for a late supper, or cena, and taquers usually stay open until about midnight, and later in big cities. On weekends, taquers near discos and clubs stay open until the wee hours of the morning, when they provide welcome sustenance to hungry partygoers.

There are many types of tacos served in Mexico and the United States. The following are the most popular ones served in the United States:

Taco al Pastor – The most popular taco in Mexico. The name means “shepherd’s-style taco.” Here the main ingredient is spiced pork, which is cut, in slivers, from a loaf of meat standing on a vertical spit in front of an open flame. These tacos are a Mexican adaptation of the spit-grilled meat brought by immigrants from Lebanon.

Breakfast Tacos – Breakfast tacos or burritos are available at many restaurants across the Southwest (especially New Mexico and Texas). It is a fried corn or flour tortilla that is rolled and stuffed with a mixture of seasoned meat, eggs, or cheese, and other ingredients such as onions and salsa. Much like sandwiches, these tacos can be as simple or complex as imagination allows. They are served for breakfast, lunch, or dinner, and they have gone mainstream to meet demands.

Fish Tacos – Ensenada, Mexico claims to be the birth place of the fish taco, and they are advertised at restaurants throughout the city where many claim that their taco is the original. The best place to sample them is at any of the small food stands that line the streets around the Mercado Negro, Ensenada’s incredible fish market. The fish tacos served are simply small pieces of batter-coated, fried fish in a hot corn or wheat tortilla.

People in the coastal areas of Mexico have been eating fish tacos for a long time. The history of fish tacos could seemly go back thousands of years to when indigenous North American peoples first wrapped the plentiful offshore catch into stone-ground-corn tortillas. The people of Ensenada say their port town is the fish taco’s true home, dating at least from the opening of the Ensenada mercado, in 1958.

The people of San Diego, California, have been hooked on fish tacos since 1983. In fact, fish tacos are the fast-food signature dish of San Diego: they’re cheap to buy and fast to make.

Fish tacos were popularized in the United States by Ralph Rubio, who first tasted them while on spring break in Baja, Mexico. According to the story he tells, there was one Baja vendor he especially liked, a man named Carlos, who ran a hole-in-the-wall taco stand with a 10-foot counter and a few stools. Carlos fried fish to order and put it on a warm tortilla. Customers added their own condiments. Rubio tried to persuade Carlos to move to San Diego, but Carlos was happy where he was and would not budge. He did agree, however, to share his recipe, which Rubio scrawled on a piece of paper pulled from his wallet. Several years later, Rubio opened his own restaurant in San Diego, called Rubio’s – Home of the Fish Taco. Today, fish tacos are legendary and are sole throughout San Diego and the Southwest.


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